1. Eligible, standard boat: an un-modified self-righting monohull 17 ft LOA or longer with a standard mainsail; a largest jib with a measured LP of 1.5 times the boats J measurement; a spinnaker with the maximum girth of 1.8 times the boats J measurement; an engine capable of 90% of hull speed; and foils generally as designed by the manufacturer. Self-righting monohull boats 17 ft LOA or longer which vary from these standards may still be eligible, but may have rating handicap penalty or credit adjustments to the standard boat's rating to compensate for configuration differences.
All boats are assumed to be race ready and are assumed to be raced by a top crew. Thus the discussion below on ratings and rating adjustments applies only to boats. Skippers, owners, and crew are not rated, no matter the degree of their sailing/racing experience.
2. Ratings: a standard boat's base rating is the average rating from the list of performance handicaps reported by US PHRF Fleets. The information for this list was culled from data sources used to prepare the “History of US PHRF Affiliated Fleet Handicaps for 2011”. If a boat is not included in the list the base rating will be the mathematical average (rounded to nearest whole number) of the base ratings annually assigned its design by a minimum of 3 and a maximum of 9 PHRF Fleets elsewhere. If 3 ratings are not available the PHRF-WYC Handicap Committee will use judgment and what information is available including the manufacturers recommended rating to rate the boat in question.
All ratings and rating adjustments are presumed to contain a probable error, unknown in both amount and direction; thus, no rating is ever permanent. Notwithstanding, PHRF-WYC has elected to use the average ratings from the list as its basis. This system offers PHRF-WYC a broad based, stable and arms-length method for rating its boats.
3. Adjustments to ratings: when a boat is non-standard, adjustments are made to the base rating (also called SP Rating for "speed potential"). Though not restricted to these categories, adjustments are typically made for non-standard sails, non-standard propulsion, non-standard spinnaker or whisker pole length (whichever is applicable) and non-standard keels or rudders.
Sails are rated on area. When oversized or undersized, a boat is assigned a penalty or credit in 3 second increments based on "envelopes" of deviation from the area of the standard: this is not a sail-for-sail comparison, but is a comparison of the non-standard sail plan vs. the standard sail plan (eg., non-standard jib plus standard main compared to standard main plus standard jib).
3a. Mainsail adjustments: most mains are standard, ie, they fit a standard mast and boom. Some designs (e.g. Ranger 23, C&C 27) are available with a short or tall mast. Clearly they are rated different. Minor, "droopy boom" is considered standard, whereas excessive droopy boom may be penalized for excess sail area. And there are boats designed for a main foot shorter than the boom (Catalina 22)- usually to let end boom sheeting clear people in the cockpit. This does not call for a credit for less sail area. If the actual foot of the sail measures the same as the standard 'E' dimension, the sail is standard.
3b. Jib adjustments: Area of the sail is again the key. US Sailing again provides standard I and J measurements for each boat (I is deck datum to the top of mast, J is distance from jib tack to mast). When each member measures from clew to luff at a 90-degree angle to the luff, the area of the 2 "right triangles" (upper part of sail and lower part of sail) can be calculated. The sum of these areas is the area of the sail. As with the main there are penalties/credits in 3-second increments for progressive envelopes of deviation from the standard sail plan area.
3c. Spinnaker adjustments: Most spinnakers are built with a max girth of `1.8 times J because standard spinnaker pole length equals J. A larger sail would not work well with a standard pole. Even so, larger spinnakers are penalized on area, as above. Two winged jibs or a cruising spinnaker are configurations permitted on boats rated with a standard spinnaker at no penalty. However, these configurations are considered "non-standard spinnakers" (receiving a credit vs. the standard) on boats that have no standard (triradial) spinnaker. These configurations cannot be used on NFS boats.
NFS means "no flying sails". Boats without spinnakers receive a rating credit of 15, 18, or 21 seconds, depending on the size of the largest jib. Boats with jibs having LP=1.5 x J get the 18 second credit. Boats with extra-large or extra small jibs get the 15 or 21 seconds respectively. Because of the prohibition on NFS boats of using 2 jibs at the same time (see above), a NFS boat must lower the "up" jib before replacing with another. This rule allows hanking the replacement jib to the forestay, or inserting the replacement in the second groove of the headfoil up to 5 ft. off the deck, before lowering the "up" jib. But the "up" jib must be lowered before hoisting the replacement.
3d. Propulsion adjustments: Standard inboard configuration is a folding prop or a two-blade prop in an aperture. Standard for outboards is an engine mounted on its running mount, not dragging-- or an outboard stowed aboard while racing. Credits are given for inboards with 3-blade props, etc. Credits are given for outboards that drag (any number of blades) on one (3 sec) or both (6 sec) tacks. Penalties are given for retractable props (inboards) or for any boat (a) whose engine is incapable of 90% of hull speed, or (b) any boat without an engine.
3e. Foil adjustments: While the standard boat is considered to have appendages as intended by the manufacturer, PHRF-WYC Class Rules allow minor latitude in fairing a blade. In general, it is permitted to fair a keel so long as the keels profiles remain within the dimension envelope as originally designed-as viewed fore and aft, as viewed from the side (both including depth). Conversely, if a keel is altered horizontally or vertically beyond the standard production dimensions, it is considered to be altered. Regardless of PHRF-WYC's probable lack of expertise in judging whether such alteration results in increased or decreased speed potential, it is assumed that such alterations are made to increase speed, and therefore penalized at the discretion of the committee. The same holds true for rudders.
3f. Pole adjustments: When a boat has a spinnaker pole longer than J, "SPL" is substituted for J in the spinnaker area formula. This results in a penalty for an oversized spinnaker, regardless of the actual area of the sail. Allowable whisker pole length equals "J" for boats whose largest jib LP is 1.25 times J or less. Allowable whisker pole length for boats with a jib LP greater than 1.25 times J is .8 times LP. Longer poles are penalized. Shorter poles (or no pole) do not receive a credit. It is permitted that telescoping poles capable of greater length be marked (nail polish?) at the point of maximum allowable extension. When reporting whisker pole length on the rating forms, members must report overall length, or marked maximum extension, whichever is less.
4. Other adjustments: There may be other penalties for modifications or equipment usage not anticipated here. See paragraph 6.
5. Other PHRF-WYC Class Rules: (a) Hiking is not allowed (ISAF rule 49 applies). (b) Centerboards/dagger boards must be locked fully down while racing (though a 6 sec. penalty is given where the owner wants the choice of adjusting the board at will). Exception is boats with keel/centerboard combination which may adjust the board at will without penalty. (c) Headfoils are permitted without penalty. (d) Full-length mainsail battens are permitted without penalty. (e) Class rules take exception to ISAF Rule 78 in that the Fleet, not the individual member, holds the Rating Certificate.
6. These Class Rules do not repeat anything permitted/prohibited by the ISAF Rules except by way of addition or exception. Beyond that, the philosophy of PHRF-WYC is that the fleet does not measure boats, sails, etc. Rather, PHRF-WYC relies on the letter and the spirit of the Fundamental Rules (see ISAF Rules 1 through 5), that honesty and sportsmanship will lead all members to report configurations accurately.
7. Scoring: Ratings as described above are expressed in seconds-per-mile speed potential difference of the boat in question vs. a fictitious boat with a rating of 120. However, races are not scored time-on-distance as the rating method suggests. Rather, boats are scored on a time-on-time method which (a) stretches the ratings differences somewhat vs. the time-on-distance method, and (b) gives advantage to the slower boats in some conditions/winds where faster rated boats with larger sails would presumably otherwise have a greater advantage. The scoring formula for each boat is: corrected time = actual time x 600/(480+rating).
8. Rating Appeals: PHRF-WYC Class Rules do not provide for any rating appeal to any body outside PHRF-WYC. Any member may appeal any rating, either (a) by following the procedures set forth in the ISAF Rules; in this event, and for the purposes of ISAF Rule 64.3.b, and the Handicappers Committee of PHRF-WYC is the "qualified authority"; or (b) by submitting the protest in writing directly to the PHRF Commodore who will convene the Handicappers Committee. In either case, the Handicappers Committee is restricted to the procedures outlined above and may not contravene those procedures in its review of a rating.
STANDARD & NON-STANDARD MAINSAIL AREA = 0.59 x P x E (appropriate P & E in each case)
STANDARD JIB AREA = 1.02 x 1 x 1.5 x J divided by 2 = .765 x I x J
NON-STANDARD JIB AREA = 1.02 x I x LP divided by 2
STANDARD SPINNAKER AREA = .87 x I x 1.8 x J
NON-STANDARD SPINNAKER AREA = .87 x LLS x G or .87 x I x 1.8 x SPL (whichever is greater)
To calculate the deviation factor for computing a penalty/credit for a non-standard mainsail: SAFM = (((.33)(STD SPIN AREA)) + ((.67)(STD JIB AREA)) + (NON-STD MAIN AREA)) divided by (((.33)(STD SPIN AREA)) + ((.67)(STD JIB AREA)) + (STD MAIN AREA))
Deviation factor for non-standard jib = (NON-STD JOB AREA + STD MAIN AREA) divided by (STD JIB AREA + STD MAIN AREA)
Deviation factor for non-standard spinnaker = (NON STD SPIN AREA + STD MAIN AREA) divided by (STD SPIN AREA + STD MAIN AREA)
For mainsails, when the ratio derived above falls between .986+ and 1.006, the sail is standard. When the ratio falls between 1.006+ and 1.026 there is a 3-sec penalty. Or between .9669+ and .986 there is a 3-sec rating credit.
For jibs, when the ratio falls between .97+ and 1.01, the sail is standard. When the ratio falls between 1.01+ and 1.05 there is a 3-sec penalty. When the ratio is between .094+ and .97 there is a 3-sec rating credit.
Spinnakers are standard when the ratio falls between .955+ and 1.015. When it falls between 1.015+ and 1.075 there is a 3-sec penalty. When it falls between .895+ and .955, there is a 3-sec rating credit.
Penalties and credits for all three sails continue in 3 sec jumps in "envelopes" of the same approximate magnitude as indicated for each sail above. Thus, when the ratio for a jib turns out to be 1.06 there is a 6-second rating penalty.